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Chapter 11

Crisis in the Academy

State-sponsored art academies were slow to change, and often changes were too little and came too late. The situation was complicated by the fact that artistic prestige continued to be measured by success at offical art exhibitions. Depending on their interests, temperament, and financial situation, artists chose paths of conformity or rebellion, or a path in between. Clearly, however, artistic preferences were becoming increasingly diverse.

Readings:

Benjamin, Walter. Charles Baudelaire: A Lyric Poet in the Era of High Capitalism, Harry Zohn, trans. London: NLB, 1973

Bergman-Carton, Janis. “The Gendering of Impressionism” in Norma Broude and Mary D. Garrard, eds. Reclaiming Female Agency: Feminist Art History after Postmodernism. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2005, pp. 203-15

Blakesley, Rosalind P. Pride and the Politics of Nationality in Russia's Imperial Academy of Fine Arts, 1757-1807. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2010

Boime, Albert. Art in an Age of Civil Struggle, 1848-1871. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2007

Boime, Albert. The Academy and French Painting in the Nineteenth Century. London: Phaidon, 1971

Friedrich, Otto. Olympia: Paris in the Age of Manet. New York: HarperCollins, 1992

Greenhalgh, Paul. Ephemeral Vistas: The Expositions Universelles, Great Exnibitions and World’s Fairs, 1851-1939. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1988

Harrison, Charles. Painting the Difference: Sex and Spectator in Modern Art. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2006

Hobsbawm, Eric. The Age of Capital: 1848-1875. New York: Vintage Books, 1996

Holt, Elizabeth Gilmore, ed. The Triumph of Art for the Public: The Emerging Role of Exhibitions and Critics. Garden City NY: Anchor Press, 1979

Lenman, Robin. Artists and Society in Germany, 1850-1914. Manchester and New York: Manchester University Press, 1997

Mainardi, Patricia. Art and Politics of the Second Empire: The Universal Expositions of 1855 and 1867. New Haven, CT and London: Yale University Press, 1987

Marrinan, Michael. Painting Politics for Louis-Philippe: Art and Ideology in Orleanist France, 1830-1848. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1988

Prettejohn, Elizabeth. Art for Art’s Sake: Aestheticism in Victorian Painting. Exhibition catalogue. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2007

Shaw, Jennifer. “The Figure of Venus: Rhetoric of the Ideal and the Salon of 1863,” in Caroline Arscott, and Katie Scott, eds., Manifestations of Venus. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2001, pp.  90-108